Futhark: Mysterious Ancient Runic Alphabet of Northern Europe

That’s over 2, years! Why did the clan disappear? But many of the points found at the site were of the domestic variety – atlatl hunting darts. These points are notched to stay on the shaft when pulled from prey for reuse. But a peaceful society usually sags in weapons technology. Did a stone-age tribe with higher technology invade the clan? This seems unlikely, as resources were abundant throughout the entire region during this period. Eventually, population in the region grew and conflicts did break out.

Using Radiocarbon Dating to Establish the Age of Iron-Based Artifacts

Posted by Satyendra on Jan 10, in Technical 0 comments Evolution of Blast Furnace Iron Making The origin of the first smelting of iron is concealed in the unrecorded history of human civilization. The first evidence of iron implements being used in ancient times actually comes from Egypt where an iron tool was found in a joint between two stones in a pyramid. The origin of many prehistoric iron implements was probably meteoric iron.

More than 4, years ago, people discovered meteoric iron. But it was another 2, years before the production of iron from mined iron ore began.

Iron has been known since ancient times. The first iron used by humans is likely to have come from meteorites. Most objects that fall to earth from space are stony, but a small proportion, such as the one pictured, are ‘iron meteorites’ with iron contents of over 90 percent.

Proto Tools from Plomb Tool Co. The catalog “F” from the Ducommun Corporation lists Plomb tools including open-end wrenches, chisels, punches, and bearing scrapers. The illustrations show the early “Plomb Tool Mfg. The catalog “G” from the Ducommun Corporation lists only a few Plomb tools, consisting of chisels, oil groovers, and a cotter pin puller. The illustration for a Plomb No. Advertisements Plomb placed advertisements in a number of trade magazines and other periodicals, and these ads provide an interesting snapshot of the tools available at various times.

The text notes the use of tungsten steel, and the ad also offers a Plomb hand-forged keyring screwdriver for just 12 cents in stamps. Another interesting detail to note is that the Plomb name at the top is written in the PLVMB form with an inverted triangle. The ad notes the use of molybdenum steel in the sockets, and shows a number of the drive tools available at the time.

Iron tools from the Bronze Age found to have otherworldly origins

It focuses on the Roupes Valley Ironworks at Tannehill which operated nearby, first as a bloomery beginning in and later as an important battery of charcoal blast furnaces during the Civil War. One of the best collections of Confederate ordnance can be found at the Tannehill museum including shells actually in the inventory of Maj. Along with Tannehill artifacts that have survived, museum exhibits graphically demonstrate how iron was made during the Civil War when 13 different iron companies and six rolling mills made Alabama the arsenal of the Confederacy.

Evolution of Blast Furnace Iron Making. The origin of the first smelting of iron is concealed in the unrecorded history of human civilization. The first evidence of iron implements being used in ancient times actually comes from Egypt where an iron tool was .

The blade is held in position by a circular flange to the top of the blade to keep in position when opened. The blade is secured by brass washers and iron pin. Nice early style with a honey brown patina to the handle Bale seals served two basic purposes in the colonial period with some variation in form and function. Their primary function was to provide proof that cloth or other goods had met the standard set by the guild which controlled the materials in the bale.

Most often, this was cloth since cloth was one of the most valuable and highly regulated and controlled materials in the 17th Century. The English wool trade and other industrial crafts relating to textiles were the backbone of the British economy in the 17th Century. This group was excavated in Philadelphia

CampSite Artifacts ·

The finds included — among many other objects — the only helmet dating back to the Viking era found in Scandinavia. Helmets are described in the Norse Sagas, and almost exclusively in association with chiefs and kings. Illustrations from the Viking Age are almost non-existing, but in some cases where the Vikings are depicted with ships, it looks as if they are wearing a helmet.

Or are they really helmets? It is suggested that the Vikings actually wore pointy hoods as protection from the weather.

TYPES OF ELECTROLYTIC SETUPS The manner in which artifacts are set up for electrolysis is dependent upon the following factors (Hamilton , ).

Rajaram Until quite recently, the famous Harappan civilization of the Indus valley has been an enigma. Many questions still remain about the identity of the people who created this great ancient civilization. Stretching over a million and a half square kilometers, from the borders of Iran to east UP and with some sites as far south as the Godavari valley, it was larger than ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia combined. The satellite image on the left is drawn in the map on the right, showing the Indus River in blue, the dry Sarasvati River basin in green and archaeological sites as black dots.

What is perhaps most puzzling about it is the fact that all major sites spread over this immense belt went into sudden decline and disappeared more or less simultaneously. The renowned archeologist, S. Rao, probably the foremost authority on Harappan archeology recently wrote: They seem to have left in a great hurry and in small groups, seeking shelter initially on the eastern flank of the Ghaggar and gradually moving towards the Yamuna.

The refugees from Mohen-jo-daro and southern sites in Sind fled to Saurashtra and later occupied the interior of the peninsula. The usual explanation found in history books is that the inhabitants of the Harappan cities were driven out by the invading Aryans. However it is now recognized by scholars that the Aryan invasion theory of India is a myth that owes more to European politics than anything in Indian records or archaeology. The evidence against any such invasion is now far too strong to be taken seriously.

To begin with, sites spread over such a vast stretch, measuring well over a thousand miles across would not have been all abandoned simultaneously due to the incursion of nomadic bands at one extremity. Further, there is profuse archaeological evidence including the presence of sacrificial altars that go to show that the Harappans were part of the Vedic aryan fold.

Ferrous metallurgy

Archaeologists from the University of Leicester have unearthed a rare collection of Iron Age metal artifacts , including decorated cauldrons, a complete sword, and a 3rd century BC brooch, at the site of Glenfield Park in Leicestershire, England. An aerial shot of the Glenfield Park roundhouse. University of Leicester Archaeological Services. The finds are the result of a series of events that took place over a considerable length of time and have resulted in multiple episodes of deposition across the settlement.

These repeated acts mark the site out as a potential ritual and ceremonial center that also hosted large feasts. John Thomas, director of the excavation and project officer from the University of Leicester Archaeological Services.

Vintage Golf and Tennis Memorabilia. Vintage Golf Equipment. ‘s Hickory Shaft Iron. Kroydon Niblick mashie in nice condition with a straight hickory shaft. The grip has been replaced with tape.

A treatise on the management and ownership of shipwrecks and shipwreck artifacts by Michael C. Barnette Somewhere out on the ocean, a ship is in distress. Tossed about by churning seas and brutal winds, the vessel struggles to stay afloat. Her crew puts forth a valiant effort while passengers, many incapacitated by waves of nausea spawned by the ever-moving deck underneath their feet, huddle together in fear. The hull is slowly breached, and seawater steadily invades the ship.

As the blitzkrieg of flooding water rises to extinguish the boiler fires, the vessel loses all power. Cast in darkness and overwhelmed by the noise of the howling wind and crashing surf, the sea tears off sections of the crippled ship, carrying away numerous unfortunate souls.

Top 10 unexplained ancient artifacts – Fact or Fiction?

Ring discovered in Viking-era grave has Arabic inscription Futhark origins Because of the resemblance to Mediterranean writing, it is thought that Futhark was adapted from either the Greek or Etruscan alphabet and its origin begins further back than the pre-history of Northern Europe. One theory is that the runic alphabet was developed by the Goths, a Germanic people.

Two inscriptions, the Negau and the Maria Saalerberg inscriptions, written in Etruscan script in a Germanic language and dating from the second and first centuries BC, give credence to the theory of Etruscan origins. A sample of Etruscan text carved into the Cippus Perusinus – a stone tablet discovered on the hill of San Marco, Italy, in

– There are many remarkable ancient artifacts that could re-write history as we know artifacts are highly controversial. We are constantly finding new artifacts that defy our current understanding of history. Among the many jewels, mens wedding bands, pottery and weapons found we find items that can confuse even the most experienced archaeologists.

Vintage Basketball Equipment ‘s Eyeglass Protectors, unknown manufacturer. An outstanding durene jersey. Medium sized, however small by todays standards. Very nice sleeved jersey. Has stretch knit construction. An outstanding jersey with sewn on logo and numbers. Actual photo not a print. Has paper from scrapbook still attached to the back.

An absolutely wonderful large ad with incredible graphics and a decidedly Chicago flavor. Nice early high top basketball shoe ad. Has news service stamp on back. Each article is 8x

Iron Conservation: Part II – Experimental Variable and Finals Steps

A chastity belt with serrated metal teeth. Chastity belts — iron locking contraptions placed around the genitalia of women — were supposedly first used to prevent knights’ wives and partners from falling to temptation while knights were away for years at a time. However, recent research indicates this is most likely a modern myth embraced by 18th and 19th century historians eager to illustrate the backwardness of medieval civilizations relative to their own enlightenment.

The first known sketch of a metal chastity belt comes from a German treatise written in , but it is believed to be a joke, rather than a depiction of any actual devices in common use. Other references to chastity belts from the 16th and 17th centuries can be interpreted as ironic, satirical or metaphorical within their historical context. Though the symbol of a tied rope belt had been used to represent a bride’s chastity in ancient Rome, the idea that medieval women would wear metal belts for extended periods of times is medically dubious — prolonged contact of skin against metal would lead to abrasions, wounds and infection.

The Iron Ore Heritage Trail traverses 47 miles across the Marquette Iron Range in Michigan’s beautiful Upper Peninsula. The rail-trail, which was designated as a National Recreation Trail in , shares and celebrates the area’s rich mining history with interpretive signage, artwork and .

Located in what’s now Pakistan and western India, it was the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. It was the largest of the four ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. However, of all these civilizations the least is known about the Indus Valley people. This is because the Indus script has not yet been deciphered. There are many remnants of the script on pottery vessels, seals, and amulets, but without a “Rosetta Stone” linguists and archaeologists have been unable to decipher it.

They have then had to rely upon the surviving cultural materials to give them insight into the life of the Harappan’s. This article will be focusing mainly on the two largest cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, and what has been discovered there. The discovery of the Indus Valley civilization was first recorded in the ‘s by the British. The first recorded note was by a British army deserter, James Lewis, who was posing as an American engineer in

Why Is This the Only Existing Viking Age Helmet?

A Mayan Jade Hunchback The Big Sandy Point In the study of the typology of projectile points used by prehistoric Americans during the Paleo and Archaic Periods in the Carolinas and Virginia, there seems to be only four types generalized by the point bases. The lanceolate type is straight sided without any notches or stems and is primarily known for the Clovis and Dalton styles of the Paleo Period, circa 10, to 8, BC.

After the Paleo Period ended, with the demise of the large megafauna such as Mammouth, Mastodon and Giant Bison, the point types changed to notched bases and later to stemmed points. The two notched basal types included the corner notched Palmer and Kirk and the side notched styles Hardaway and Big Sandy. These all began during the earliest times in the Archaic Period with a beginning date of at least 8, BC and ending around 6, BC.

After that the stemmed type points mostly dominated for the next five or six thousand years.

Every once in a while, archaeologists (and sometimes amateur archaeologists) make remarkable and bizarre discoveries. Sometimes, the finding is so surprising that they are unable to explain what.

The various dating techniques available to archaeologists by Michael G. Furthermore, when you consider that many archaeological sites will contain numerous types of artifacts that permit the use of multiple dating methodologies, a modern archaeologist can often employ cross-dating methodologies which can allow for extremely accurate dating as far back as 10, years in some regions. Natural Dating Techniques A modern archaeologist has almost half a dozen natural dating techniques that she can apply in the field that she can use to quickly determine an approximate date range, which, in the cases of varve analysis and dendrochronology, can often be used to decrease the date range estimate to a matter of just a few years.

One of the oldest natural dating techniques is geochronology, which is based on the principle of superposition — an object, or layer, on top must have been placed there at a later point in time. Once a geologist has determined the absolute age of a geological formation, the archaeologist can assign an indirect date to objects found in the formation. In archaeology, geochronology lays the foundations for the dating technique better known as stratigraphy that assesses the age of archaeological materials by their association with geological deposits or formations.

For example, the successive formation of post-Pleistocene shorelines at Cape Krusenstern Alaska provided J Louis Giddings with a means of ordering sites chronologically. A prime example of stratigraphy is varve analysis. A varve is a sedimentary bed, or a sequence of such beds, that are deposited in a body of still water in a year.

The Harappan Civilization by Tarini Carr

Vintage Basketball Equipment ‘s Eyeglass Protectors, unknown manufacturer. An outstanding durene jersey. Medium sized, however small by todays standards. Very nice sleeved jersey.

In this article, an overview is presented of the status of the radiocarbon dating of iron-based materials. Recent advances include simplification in sample preparation and reduction in sample size for accelerator mass spectrometry measurements, and the potential use of rust as a viable source of material for radiocarbon dating.

These artifacts are highly controversial. We are constantly finding new artifacts that defy our current understanding of history. Among the many jewels, mens wedding bands , pottery and weapons found we find items that can confuse even the most experienced archaeologists. This time we take a look at some of the most extraordinary artifacts discovered world-wide. Did this alien artifact belong to an unknown ancient civilization far more advanced than us?

The screw, which is clearly visible in the head and nut, has a length of about cm and a diameter of about three millimeters. Scientists initially thought that the screw was in a farm machine, but further examination revealed that the screw was firmly fixed in the rock.

11 Unreal Ancient Sites and Artifacts

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